We used these definitions for terms identified in the scoring criteria and findings of Who’s Minding the Store?. Many of these definitions were developed by the Chemical Footprint Project (CFP). We are adopting their definitions to promote greater alignment with CFP. We thank the CFP team for their work in developing many of these definitions.
Alternatives Assessment (AA): a process for identifying, comparing and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern (including those in materials, processes or technologies) on the basis of their hazards, performance, and economic viability. A primary goal of an Alternatives Assessment is to reduce risk to humans and the environment by identifying safer choices.
Article: An object which, during production, is given a special shape, surface or design, which determines its function to a greater degree than its chemical composition.
Beyond Restricted Substance List (BRSL): hazardous chemicals identified by a company for management, reduction, elimination, or avoidance beyond legal requirements; that is, beyond legally restricted and reportable substances.
The Chemical Footprint Project (CFP): an initiative for measuring corporate progress to safer chemicals. It provides a metric for benchmarking companies as they select safer alternatives and reduce their use of chemicals of high concern. The Chemical Footprint Project measures overall corporate chemicals management performance through a 20-question survey, scored to 100 points, that evaluates:
- Management Strategy (20 points)
- Chemical Inventory (30 points)
- Footprint Measurement (30 points)
- Public Disclosure and Verification (20 points)
Chemical of High Concern (CHC): substances that have any of the following properties: 1) persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic (PBT); 2) very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB); 3) very persistent and toxic (vPT); 4) very bioaccumulative and toxic (vBT); 5) carcinogenic; 6) mutagenic; 7) reproductive or developmental toxicant; 8) endocrine disruptor; or 9) neuro- toxicant. “Toxic” (T) includes both human toxicity and ecotoxicity.
Chemical Footprint Project Signatories: Signatories of the Chemical Footprint Project agree to:
- Encourage companies in their sphere of influence to participate in the Chemical Footprint Project,
- Be listed on the Chemical Footprint Project website, and
- Provide feedback on how to improve implementation of the Chemical Footprint Project
Chemicals in Products: chemicals that are intended or anticipated to be part of the finished product. Examples include dyes, silicone finishes, screen printing, inks, labels, flame retardants, a durable water repellent chemical formulation, or a chemical plasticizer added to a plastic product or component.
Chemicals Policy: a statement of how a company manages chemicals in its materials, supply chains, products, packaging, and/or operations beyond what is required by regulation.
Collaborative Processes to Promote Safer Chemicals: Examples of such initiatives include the Beauty and Personal Care Products Sustainability Project (BPC); the BizNGO Workgroup for Safer Chemicals and Sustainable Materials (BizNGO); Green Chemistry & Commerce Council’s (GC3) Retailer Leadership Council (RLC) or GC3 Preservatives Project; and the Zero Discharge of Hazardous Chemicals (ZDC) Program.
Credible Third-Party Safer Chemicals Standards: include Cradle to Cradle, EPEAT Gold, EWG Verified, GreenScreen Certified, Green Seal, Made Safe, and Safer Choice (formerly known as Design for the Environment).
Disclosure: synonymous with “public disclosure,” meaning that information is available to the general public through means such as print media, Internet/web sites, in annual progress and sustainability reports, at investor and stakeholder meetings, or on packaging.
Formulated Product: a preparation or mixture of chemical substances that can be gaseous, liquid, or solid (e.g., paints, liquid cleaning products, adhesives, coatings, cosmetics, detergents, dyes, inks, or lubricants). Can be an intermediate product sold to another formulator, fabricator, or distributor, or a final product sold to a consumer or retailer.
Full Chemical Ingredient Information:
For articles: a company knows:
- 95% of the intentionally added substances by mass; and
- any impurities that are both a CHC and present at 1000 ppm or higher in a homogeneous material.
For formulated products: a company knows:
- 100% of the intentionally added substances by mass; and
- any impurities that are both a CHC and present at 100 parts per million (ppm) or higher in the formulation.
Generic Material Content is defined as the general name of a material, such as steel, nylon fabric, adhesive, or type of plastic (e.g., polyethylene terephthalate (PET)). CAS# is not required.
Green chemistry: the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. See The 12 principles of Green Chemistry – https://www.epa.gov/greenchemistry/basics-green-chemistry#twelve.
GreenScreen® for Safer Chemicals: a method for comparative Chemical Hazard Assessment (CHA) that can be used for identifying chemicals of high concern and safer alternatives. GreenScreen® considers 18 human and environmental health endpoints and can be used to evaluate the hazard of a single chemical or mixtures and polymeric materials. GreenScreen® uses a set of four benchmarks to screen out chemicals that are associated with adverse health and environmental impacts. Chemicals that do not pass through Benchmark 1 are deemed Chemicals of High Concern and should be avoided; chemicals at Benchmark 2 are categorized as usable, but efforts should be taken to find safer alternatives; Benchmark 3 chemicals are those with an improved environmental health and safety profile but could still be improved; and chemicals that pass through all four benchmarks are considered safer chemicals and are therefore preferred.
GreenScreen® List Translator: an abbreviated version of the full GreenScreen® method that can be automated. It is based on the hazard lists that inform the GreenScreen® method. The GreenScreen® List Translator maps authoritative and screening hazard lists, including GHS country classifications, to GreenScreen® hazard classifications. The GreenScreen® List Translator can be accessed through tools such as Healthy Building Network’s Pharos Chemical and Material Library, a fee-for-service database.
Hazard (chemical): inherent property of a substance having the potential to cause adverse effects when an organism, system, or population is exposed, based on its chemical or physical characteristics.
Hazard Assessment: the process of determining under what exposure conditions (e.g., substance amount, frequency and route of exposure) a substance can cause adverse effects in a living system. Toxicology studies are used to identify the potential hazards of a substance by a specific exposure route (e.g., oral, dermal, inhalation) and the dose (amount) of substance required to cause an adverse effect.
Hazardous 100+ List of Chemicals of High Concern (Hazardous 100+): The Hazardous 100+ List of Chemicals of High Concern represents a small subset of all inherently hazardous chemicals of concern to which humans and the environment may be exposed in certain consumer products. Scientists have established links between exposures to many of these chemicals and chronic diseases and health conditions, including cancer, infertility, learning and developmental disabilities, behavioral problems, obesity, diabetes, and asthma. The list is available online here.
Manufacturing Restricted Substance List (MRSL): The MRSL differs from a BRSL because it restricts hazardous substances potentially used and discharged into the environment during manufacturing, not just substances that could be present in finished products. The MRSL takes into consideration both process and functional chemicals used to make products, as well as chemicals used to clean equipment and facilities. It addresses any chemical used within the four walls of a manufacturing facility.
Persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic substance (PBT): a chemical that is toxic, persists in the environment, and bioaccumulates in food chains and, thus, poses risks to human health and ecosystems.
Safer Alternative: a chemical that, due to its inherent chemical and physical properties, exhibits a lower propensity to persist in the environment, accumulate in organisms, and induce adverse effects in humans or animals than chemicals in current use. In addition, the alternative must deliver the needed functional performance. A safer alternative may eliminate the need for the chemical through material change, product re-design, or product replacement; or by altering the functional demands for the product through changes in consumer demand, workplace organization, or product use.
Third-party: an independent person/entity involved in a project, including chemical assessments, that is not biased to the results of the work nor has any vested interest in the outcome of the work.